Alternatives that are most desirable, and one of the rarest, is that the 454ci, 425hp engine, which included $. There were only 188 of these Corvettes made in 1971. I can only imagine price must have been the issue, as this was a desirable big block. I bet with the right tuning and some bolt, although the LS6 454 was conservatively rated at 425 horsepower. Can you imagine how much fun that car would have been?
Hit the streets with this Saturday night special and I would like to take the T-Tops off! I have always loved the huge block Corvettes, as they appear to symbolize the greatest. These cars have always been coveted among fans and collectors. However, with the current gas prices, I can see why this car would be less desirable as it undoubtedly boasted high single digit or low double digit gas mileage ratings. Gas was cheap, so that wasn’t an issue at the moment, so this car would have been king of the roads and there were emissions controls.
From the mid-70’s, emissions issues and the gas crunch would squash any additional development of these kinds of cars. I wonder if that was only available or if they had been available on the dealership lots? I wasn’t alive in 1971, so I don’t know, and can’t find any data to support either side. I do know that using just 188 of them made, this is a desirable and rare option for any Corvette collector.
See photographs of the build data or sheet plate, or I would like to see one of these in person. I wonder how many of the ultra automobiles exist now, without realizing they are, and the number of people own them? I would love to have one of those block monster Corvettes!
Do you like the cruise ships which hold over the ships which hold under 1,000 or 4,000 passengers? Some ports don’t handle the vessels that are larger and the focus to the passenger is greater on the smaller boats. Check out the possibilities with these cruise lines.
Some of the luxury cruise lines have boats that are smaller. I’m talking Seabourn Cruises, Crystal Cruises, Oceania Cruises, Regent Seven Seas Cruises and Azamara Cruises. This means you get more choices of ports. Yes, they may be more expensive but the benefits might make it. These luxury cruise lines give you travel at its best, most are all-inclusive. That means no extras that are unexpected, no extra drink packages.
Azamara Cruises focuses on Destination Immersion where longer stays overnights and night touring are included on 100% of the voyages. You get to explore everything from nightlife in Stockholm and morning walks in the French Riviera to adventures in Costa Rica’s rain forests. You’ll experience boutique-style ships with no more than 686 guests, team and staff can quickly learn tastes, your name, and preferences. All this with a great deal of inclusive amenities like standard spirits, international beers and wines, gratuities, and an AzAmazing Evenings occasion (on most voyages) – all with their compliments. Also included for the majority of guests are bottled water, soft drinks, specialty coffees and teas, English butler service for suite guests, self-service laundry, shuttle service to and from vent communities (where available) and concierge services for individual guidance and reservations.
Visit ports like Marseille, Amalfi, Crete or even to the doorstep of Bangkok (while other large cruise lines dock a few hours away), the center of Seville, and the city centre of Bordeaux. Experience the culture, cuisine, scenery and people of your destinations. The team prefer to mingle with the guests and are very happy to point out things that are special at sea and onshore and go above and beyond your expectations.
Crystal Cruises/Crystal River Cruises/Crystal Yachts
Another all-inclusive cruise line. This includes complimentary gratuities choices of all beverages bar service in all lounges, and dining options such as specialty restaurants, complimentary fine wines and premium spirits. You get high tea 24-hour room service, golf courses, computer/technology classes and a technology concierge, Crystal Visions Enrichment Program, entertainment and complimentary launderettes. Additionally, you can bring your own wine/liquor with no corkage fees!
Predominantly non-smoking indoors (except the Connoisseur Club Cigar bar) this is an excellent and elegant alternative to the big ships. They offer yacht cruises, river cruises, luxury air and homes. Booking is available for 2018 and 2017. The yacht is a comprehensive super-yacht with 31 luxury suites and two free Crystal Adventures shore excursions in most every port, depending on the destination. Water sports in the yacht’s marina platform is also available and remember the state-of-the-art deep-sea submersible accommodating pilot and two passengers. The river cruises will be home based in Paris and will have length cruises and will have 2016 with 2-for-1 fares its first sailing in July and overnights in popular ports.
Oceania Cruises lets you find a choice of exotic and varied destinations. They are itineraries designed to showcase the many fascinating destinations. They are luxurious and intimate, visiting cities that are historic to seaside villages to contemporary meccas. Each day offers opportunities to experience the history, art and cuisine of a destination that is wondrous. Enjoy dining motivated by Master Chef Jacques Pépin. Complimentary amenities that are lavish abound, and there are never supplemental charges in any of the restaurants. Value packages make sure sipping wine, surfing the internet or enjoying a beach trip is both convenient and affordable.
Oceania provides since it holds only 684 to 1,250 guests, depending on the ship, catering to its passengers. It is country club casual ambiance with personalized service. It offers voyages featuring visits and evening interface stays. Experience epicurean enrichment programs, including Culinary Discovery Tours from the planet’s most fascinating destinations. The spa is an Canyon Ranch SpaClub.
Regent Seven Seas Cruises
Regent Seven Seas offers a very personal and truly tasty experience. Where everything is included, without compromise and without exception you can expect an unforgettable trip. Regent’s fares comprise 2-for-1 All-Inclusive fares, early booking savings, free unlimited shore excursions, free luxury hotel package in Concierge Suites and higher, free specialty restaurants, free unlimited beverages including fine wines and premium spirits, free open bars and lounges PLUS in package mini bar replenished daily, free pre-paid gratuities, free 24-hour room service, free transfers between airport and ship and a number of other amenities. The dress code is elegant casual dress. Smithsonian Journeys bring to life an onboard experience. There are virtuoso performances Broadway shows demonstrations and wine tastings and the spectacular Canyon Ranch SpaClub wellness programs.
You will find enticing voyages during almost the entirety of their ships around the world in the comfort of a smoke free environment to more than 250 ports. These ports are a few of the ports that larger vessels can’t reach on a vessel that’s all suites with a private balcony with 97 percent of these. There are 700 or just 490 guests, leading to no waiting, no lines and stellar service.
With Seabourn you sail to your own club, where members discuss grand decks that are open, inviting social spaces, and the attention of an crew. You will find hidden gems and itineraries to must-see cities. These are ships with no more than 300 spacious suites with sea views, most with verandas. The staff that is intuitive is enthusiastic about satisfying their guests. Gourmet dining experiences that rival the best restaurants anywhere, free champagne and bar stocked with your preferences, complimentary dining venues where you dine where you wish, when you wish and with whom you desire. This is an experience with open bars throughout the boat and nice wines poured at lunch and dinner. Tipping is neither required nor expected.
Seabourn visits bucket wish destinations and ports like France Saint-Tropez and Palarmo, Spain. Shore excursions are available to explore each port of call.
In actuality, it’s going to be the ideal way to unwind after weeks of the busy schedule. A day on the sea will be an adventure that you won’t overlook, and yacht leasing will make it special. In this guide, we’re going to give you a few tips that may help you rent a fantastic yacht.
If you have the permit and sufficient experience, you can rent a yacht to become your captain. In this case, you can arrange the necessary details. On the other hand, you may have to hire the services of a captain and crew .
Set a Plan
Before you look for a yacht, make sure you plan your journey. Be sure to don’t hurry as this choice involves plenty of expenses. What you need to do is check the locations you want to visit, the departure place, the period of the trip along with potential travel dates.
Choose a Company
Make sure you look for a good company. You can search for a luxury yacht with an experienced captain and crew if you have a budget. On the other hand, if you do not need the crew, you can consider a bareboat instead.
Port of Death
For specific search results, you can search for the port of departure also. You might want to look for yacht websites, boating magazines, and ads. It’s a fantastic idea to get in touch with local yacht clubs, the authority or harbor master.
Visit the Departure Site
It’s better to visit the port of departure in advance. These resources can help you compare your options so you can make the option that is ideal.
Make sure to consider amenities provided by the boat and the comfort level. It’s also important to take into account the size of the yacht if you’re traveling with a group of people.
If your friends and you want to relax and sunbathe on the boat, make sure the necessary services can be found onboard. It’s important to know the limitations you have to face.
Don’t forget to figure out the expenses you need to pay for yachts. Other things that you may wish to consider are the cost of the fuel, insurance policy, customs, and a few other hidden charges.
Food and Drinks
Don’t forget to ask if beverages and food will be offered for free on the yacht. Work out how much they will cost if they are not offered for free. You can bring your own food, if you’re on a budget. It’s also important to read and follow the service provider’s terms and conditions. You have to be comfortable with them.
These are some tips that you ought to consider before renting a yacht.
Imagine your special occasion being special once you turn up to your wedding or lunch on the helicopter. By coming in a helicopter stand out from others in terms of style and make an impact on your date, business partners, friends or classmates. When you touch down in a helicopter, it brings mix feelings of happiness and adrenaline rush out. It would be matchless to compare the thrill of helicopter flight along with different modes of transport. The thudding overhead and the feeling of lifting off are an adventure which you might never have and may never experience traveling by any atmosphere.
Helicopter Charter is Worth Every Penny
There can be several reasons to take helicopter charter service because it helicopter journey will make your travel a memorable experience but the most prominent is. The helicopter flight is an adventure that most find to be thrilling. Making use of helicopter flights can be a great way create memories that will make a special day all the more special and to make an occasion special.
Helicopters fly at a height that makes them so enchanting for sight-seeing tours. They aren’t permitted to fly over aeroplanes so from that height it gives a perfect view when looked from the window and sees the world below.
In reducing the travelling time since it does not have to force you to go through the process of checking in and waiting for two hours of for flight helicopter helps. Because everyone understands that time equals money, this can be a benefit to any company. It’s also a lot less stressful as it leaves you with additional time to actually enjoy your holiday if you’re going away for leisure. The benefits regardless of whether you’re using for leisure or business of a helicopter charter is the fact that it eliminates stops. This not only creates inconvenience, so anything is certain to be a fantastic thing but they also create high prices.
Private and Cosy
Travelling by helicopter charter gives you more privacy than flying on a normal aeroplane with hundreds of other people. This gives you a freedom of doing whatever you want; you sit there and relax or just can conduct a business meeting. You can do this with no interruptions. This degree of privacy is impossible to get on a normal plane as there are so many people flying at the exact same time.
Reach Out to the Places Where You Can’t Move with Jet Planes
If you are planning to visit a place which do not have landing space for planes or a area, the helicopter is a convenient and simple alternative. A trip to Vaishno Devi or mountainous regions like Sikkim is much better made with a helicopter.
The charter helicopters are intelligently designed and highly adaptable to address a selection of individual needs, their possible provide access to remote areas and city centres, with the capacity to land at helipads, hotels and private possessions, where the distance allows, making them one of the most flexible and suitable aircraft types for traveling to distant, crowded or otherwise difficult to reach destinations.
The Indy 500 is. The cars have changed somewhat since that first race back in 1911 but the greatest spectacle in racing still brings people from far and wide to the 2.5 mile oval track come race day.
They come for the background of the event, for the thrills of the race, for the atmosphere and for the roar of the engines since the racetrack can hold upwards of 300,000 people, and they come in droves.
If you live near Indiana then it’s easy to take in the event each year, but if you dodo you fly commercial when you can simply charter a jet to get you there in style? It is cheaper than you may realize and it saves all the hassles of flying commercial such as the seating and the long security lines. Instead, sit back, relax and enjoy the head, shoulder, elbow and leg room that you get while you are chilling with your party on route to Indiana all.
It is not easy to win the Indy 500 that begins to make up the 33 car field. Three drivers hold the title of most wins at Indy . Rick Mears holds the record this time for the most pole positions. The great owner Roger Penske is the most effective at Indy, with 16 wins and 17 poles for his drivers.
It’s also difficult to get on a flight, not if you enjoy room and simplicity that is. The one thing that the Indy 500 and commercial flights have in common is milk. You can get milk and you’re given a bottle of milk in the winners circle if you win at Indy. This tradition started back in 1933 after winning the race when a motorist asked for milk. A marketing edge was seen by A dairy executive well and there, the rest is history. 2% or skim milk to chug for the world, if you win you’re given the option of whole.
Such as the ones before have bee the Indy promises to be an exciting race
Located seven miles north of Fort Walton Beach on the Emerald Coast of Florida’s panhandle, the Air Force Armament Museum, occupying a portion of Eglin Air Force Base, collects, preserves, displays, and interprets artifacts, weapons, bombs, and missiles from numerous wars and the aircraft that delivered them.
Eglin Air Force Base:
Eglin Air Force Base itself traces its origins to 1931, when personnel from the Army Air Corps Technical School, located at Maxwell Field in Alabama, sought a suitable site for a bombing and gunnery range. They set their sights, because the area surrounding the expanses of the adjacent Gulf of Mexico, and Valparaiso, Florida, offered considerable potential. So, also, did James E. Plew, a local businessman and an aviation enthusiast.
His interest was fiscally fueled. Realizing the financial boost to the region’s economy, which had sunken into the depths of the Depression, he leased acres giving rise. The following year he went a step further by donating 1,460 acres to the US authorities for the envisioned facility.
Transformed in the Valparaiso Bombing and Gunnery Base on June 14, 1935 when it was officially activated, it had been put under the command of Captain Arnold H. Rich and redesignated Eglin Field 2 years later, on August 4, to honor Lieutenant Colonel Frederick I. Eglin of the US Air Corps, who lost his life in an aircraft mishap that January.
World War II had a significant effect on the centre. The Eglin facility was selected, but would hardly remain in its state. Indeed, after the US Forestry Service ceded 384,000 acres of the Choctawhatchee National Forest to the War Department, an Air Corps Proving Ground was activated in 1941, and Eglin became the site of gunnery training for Army Air Force fighter pilots, as well as becoming a major testing center for aircraft, equipment, and tactics.
So significant was the new base, that it was chosen as one of the sites at which Lieutenant Colonel Jimmy Doolittle ready his crews for the B-25 Mitchell raid against Tokyo.
The Eglin expanses that were isolated had thus been transformed from disadvantage to benefit. It was here that tactics to destroy missile installations intended to encourage V-1 buzz-bomb attacks on England were established.
“Eglin also became a pioneer in missile development when, in early 1946, the first Experimental Guided Missiles Group was activated to develop the techniques for missile launching and managing; establish training programs; and track the development of a drone or pilotless aircraft capable of supporting the Atomic Energy Commissions tests”
The centre’s role continued to evolve. The Air Research and Development Command, partly in reaction to the Soviet nuclear explosion, was established in early-1950, which in turn generated the Air Force Armament Center the following year, for the first time attracting development and testing together. The effects’ benefits surrounded testing in actual combat during the Korean War, notching enhanced air-to-air and close support strategy accomplishments up.
The Air Proving Ground Center, the joint effect of the formerly separate entities, was formed on December 1, 1957.
Redesignated the Armament Development and Test Center on August 1, 1968, the initially-named Air Proving Ground Center served as the centralized location of research, development, testing, and evaluations, and was responsible for initial acquisition of non-nuclear weapons such as the Air Force, an emphasis caused by the Southeast Asian conflict.
The Armament Divisions of the center placed the munitions for the laser, television, and infrared guided bombs and two anti-armor weapons systems.
Eglin Air Force Base’s importance was emphasized in 1970 when it became the practice location of the Son Tay Raiders, who subsequently rescued American prisoners-of-war from a North Vietnamese prison camp. As one of the four main US Vietnamese Refugee Processing Centers in 1975, it housed and processed more than 10,000 at Auxiliary Field Two, and did the same four decades later for an equal number of Cubans.
On the brink of the 21st century, the Air Force Development Test Center was redesignated the Air Force Materiel Command’s Air Armament Center (AAC), which developed, acquired, tested, and fired all air-delivered weapons to provide superior combat capability through the three principle divisions of the Air Force Program Executive Office for Weapons, the 46th Test Wing, and the 96th Air Base Wing.
Because the Air Armament Center was deactivated on July 18, 2012 so that the amount of Air Force Materiel Command Centers could be reduced from twelve to five, and the 46th Test Wing and the 96th Air Base Wing were united to create the 96th Test Wing, the Air Force’s biggest wing now houses all Eglin’s test and support functions.
Eglin Air Force Base is subdivided into ten fields. Its major weapons systems include the UH-1 helicopter, the C-130 Hercules, the KC-97, the B-17 Flying Fortress, the C-124 Globemaster, the KC-135, the B-47, the B-52, the B-1, the AT-38, the A-10, the F-15, the F-16, and the SM-65 Atlas rocket.
Weapon and War Evolution:
Both weapons and the wars in which they were utilized evolved throughout history.
Just 11 years after the Wright Brothers defeated continued, powered, and controlled heavier-than-air flight in Kill Devil Hill, North Carolina, for example, the plane, which they foresaw as a tool of peace, assumed the opposite function when World War I’s match was lit in 1914. The US itself did not officially enter the fray for three decades, however, and aviation development was limited to the Liberty engine, installed in the de Havilland DH.4 biplane, and the Curtiss JN-4 Jenny, which largely supplied pilot training. Nevertheless, the feature, as was soon revealed of the airplane, was its ability to allow pilots to scout enemy locations and movements.
Hand-held pistols and fixed and machine guns, along with a few rudimentary bombs, encompassed the firearms. However, the most crucial technological breakthrough came with firing synchronization introduced by Anthony Fokker, whose interrupter gear ceased actual bullet release once the propeller blade was facing it, avoiding self-inflicted damaged on his Eindecker or”monoplane” series of aircraft in 1915.
Throughout the dual-deck interval between the First and Second World Wars, battle strategies, weaponry, and significant aircraft, spurred by the necessity of war itself, evolved.
“On December 22, 1941, Britain’s Prime Minister Winston Churchill and President Franklin D. Roosevelt met in Washington, DC, for the three months,” according the Air Force Armament Museum’s website. “They and their advisers shaped Anglo-American plan for the war against the Axis powers. The 2 Allies agreed that while they fought only a holding action in the Pacific Nazi Germany had to be conquered. Once the European war had been won, they would turn their combined efforts into defeating Japan.”
Technological momentum was unarrestable. Increasing powerplant capacity installed in single- and twin-engine fighters, escorts, and torpedo-bombers and four-engine, long-range, heavy bombers, injected these designs with increased speed, maneuverability, and ordinance-carrying capability.
Because the two principle European and Pacific theaters differed, therefore did the munitions. Strategic tactics in the former, by way of instance, comprised targeting submarine pens, hydro-electric dams, industrial plants, transportation centers, and oil, oil, and lubricant (POL) facilities.
In comparison to the enemy formations targeted in World War I, industrial complexes, cities, and even inhabitants often replaced them in World War II, and phosphorous and fragmentation weapons of mass destruction were soon developed.
From the battle’s end, piston aircraft speeds had eclipsed the 400-mph mark and the first propellerless turbines were nacelle-housed and wing underside-mounted on the German Messerschmitt Me-262 Schwalbe or”Swallow.”
Five years after the conclusion of World War II, another battle erupted-this time in Korea.
“Just before daylight on Sunday, June 25, 1950, the North Korea People’s Army crossed the 38th parallel of latitude into the southern portion of Korea,” the Air Force Armament Museum’s website continues. “The North Koreans, supported by Russians and later by the Chinese, invaded and attempted to conquer South Korea, which was supported by the USA and other countries operating under the flag of the United Nations.”
Although technology had reached the pure-jet plateau, the North American P-51 Mustang, powered by a single Merlin piston engine, was capable of operating in the frontline airstrips that turbine-powered fighters couldn’t. Coupled with speed, maneuverability, and its range, it was instrumental.
Although North Korean progress necessitated tactical air plans and heavy bombers that packed the proverbial punch on supply dumps and communication lines, communist Chinese intervention, albeit still in the endangered stage, resulted in the UN political restraint on surface and air operations.
Since it was forbidden to cross the Yalu River, the sanctuary that restraint created proved valuable to enemy forces, because they were able to stockpile supplies, build up air bases, and increasingly use MiG-15 jet fighters.
That in Vietnam, the battle, raged not far away in Southeast Asia. The US Air Force, providing direct fire support and ground force air lift, sprang into action in 1965, and experienced a lower loss rate than that in any previous war, despite the fact that they delivered much more supplies and men, employed more ordinance, and flew more missions.
A cross-section of aeronautical evolution plied the skies from pure-jets and piston power to fighters. Iron bombs were, dropped by b-52s, created for strikes. Fighter-bomber roles were supposed by training aircraft. Transports, once carrying passengers, defoliated jungle underbrush and released flares.
“These and other peculiarities form the cornerstone of the jet age Air Force, running a limited war against an enemy fighting an insurgency in a jungle environment,” states the museum.
As had occurred with the border crossing of the North Koreans in that war, Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait marked the second time that the United Nations voted to enter war to thwart the aggression against one of its members on November 29, 1990, resulting in the 30-nation effort and the successful Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm strategies. So exact were their air strikes, a subsequent, protracted land war was averted.
Much of the technological development of the weapons and the aircraft that delivered them can be viewed in the Air Force Armament Museum, located on Highway 85/Eglin Parkway.
The lack of a suitable facility on Eglin Air Force Base precluded its opening until an enlisted club building became available two years, although it was approved in 1971. Despite increasing popularity and its collection, to the tune of some 80,000 annual visitors itself fell in disrepair and was condemned in 1981. A lengthy fundraising effort ultimately led to the centre that stands deeded to the United States Air Force. It opened its doors in November of 1985.
Encompassing both indoor and outdoor displays, it features an extensive assortment of weapons, bombs, missiles, rockets, simulators, and some 30 real aircraft, covering the World War I, World War II (European and Pacific theaters), Korean, and Vietnam eras.
Armament includes an AGM-158 joint air-to-surface Standoff missile; an ADM-160B miniature air-launched decoy; a Tomahawk cruise missile; a BUM-34F Frebee II, which was an air- or ground-launched, remote-controlled, supersonic subscale aerial target; a JB-2 pilotless, pulse jet propelled bomb; an AN-M 66A1 2,000-poumd general purpose bomb; a BQM-34A Firebee drone, that was a pilotless, swept-wing jet-powered aircraft capable of speeds of up to Mach.97; and”The Fat Man,” the second and last nuclear weapon detonated over Nagasaki, Japan, after it was dropped from the B-29 Superfortress on August 9, 1945. Its yield, equal to 23,000 tons of TNT, caused two square miles of devastation and 45,000 casualties that were immediate.
There are four important aircraft on display inside the museum.
The first of them is the Republic P-47 Thunderbolt. Powered by a 2,800-hp Pratt and Whitney R-2800-77 radial engine and dubbed the”Jug,” it was almost invincible, staying in the sky, despite enemy strikes, due to its heavy armament, pilot armor, and self-sealing fuel tanks. Flown in every World War II theater, with the exception of Alaska, it was produced in greater quantities than any other US fighter, totaling 15,683 aircraft of all variations.
The significant design is the P-51 Mustang. Due to its speed (437 mph) and variety (2,300 miles), it had been one of the most renowned Allied fighters, slicing through the sky at altitudes that varied from treetop level to 40,000 feet. Powered by a 1,695-hp Packard Merlin 12-cylinder, V-configured, liquid-cooled V-1650-7 engine, it served in the Korean conflict and destroyed some 4,950 enemy aircraft in Europe.
Another important aircraft is the Lockheed F-80 Shooting Star, which achieved several”firsts,” including the first US Air Force one to exceed 500 mph (maximum rate was 594), the first US pure-jet to be fabricated in massive quantities, and the first to be used in combat.
Produced as a high-altitude interceptor and first flying on January 8 as the XP-80 of the following year in prototype form, it had been extensively employed as a fighter-bomber from the Korean War in P-80C guise. Powered by a single 5,400 thrust-pound Allison J33-A-23/35 turbojet, it had a 1,380-mile variety and a 46,800-foot service ceiling. Production totaled 1,731.
Lastly, the Republic F-105 Thunderchief, with its swept wing and 24,500 thrust-pound afterburning Pratt and Whitney J75-P-19W engine, says”rate,” at a supersonic 1,390 mph from the museum.
It became the mainstay of the Air Force force, particularly in Vietnam, engaging in strikes against enemy aircraft than any other type. The terrain guidance mode of its radar system let it descend in most weather conditions over unfamiliar territory and then”floor hug” it to avoid detection, yet it had a service ceiling as high as 51,000 feet.
Of the 833 F-105s created, the F-105D, which is exhibited in the museum, was the most one, accounting for 610 airframes. The aircraft holds the record for the heaviest load carried by a single-engine type.
The majority of the planes in the collection of the museum are located out.
“Driving onto the grounds of the Air Force Armament Museum, visitors first notice the array o numerous aircraft on display,” it advises.
One of these is the AC-47 Spooky. A DC-3/C-47 converted into a gunship, according to the 3 7.62-mm SUU-11A Gatling mini-guns protruding from the three windows on the fuselage’s aft, port side, the aircraft, in an olive-green and brown camouflage livery, was initially flight-tested in Eglin Air Force Base in 1964, and the first of the type, assigned to the 1st Air Control Squadron, arrived in Vietnam on December 2.
The C-47K, construction number 44-76486 of the museum, is depicted as an AC-47D, serial number 43-49010, which was one of the 20 to have been converted to this standard.
Another aircraft, the Lockheed AC-130A Spectre, can be considered an airframe equipped with a new weapon system, which itself encompassed guns integrated with sophisticated sensors, navigation, and fire management. Its fuselage and wings that were obstructionless made it the ideal platform.
Tested at Eglin Air Force Base between September and June it was initially deployed in Vietnam on the 20th of the month.
The later AC-130H was equipped with 20-, 40-, and firearms.
The AC-130A instance of the museum was the first off the production line in 1953.
Synonymous with World War II is another outside aircraft, the Boeing B-17G Flying Fortress, which was thrown into the fray with the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. It dropped more than 640,000 tons of ordinance on Europe alone and was known for its daylight strategic bombing of German industrial targets although it operated in every theater of war. The example of the museum sports the Bombardment Group emblem.
Powered by six General Electric J47-GE-25 turbojets, four of which were mounted in pairs, it had a 1,260-unit production run and was fabricated as a bomber by Boeing itself, Douglas, and Lockheed. Another 600 participated in reconnaissance missions and served as coaches.
The example, using a speed and a weight of the museum, is depicted as a B-47E which was operated in the 1950s and 1960s. It was the Air Force’s last operational RB-47.
Nearby is its bigger brother. Designed to fulfill the Army Air Corps’ requirement with a rate payload, and 3,000-mile selection, its first appeared in B-52A form. Because high bypass ratio turbofans had yet to be invented, the mammoth high, swept-wing aircraft, with its bicycle undercarriage, was powered by eight paired, water-injected, 13,750 thrust-pound J57-P-43WB turbojets in its B-52H version, enabling it to carry 50,000 lbs of ordinance in a variety of configurations, along with four.50-caliber M3 machine guns in its tail turret. Its thrust and wing region endowed it with a 488,000-pound maximum takeoff weight, a 47,000-foot support ceiling, a 7,300-mile range, and a 634-mph speed, all with”straight-pipe” turbines.
Deliveries of the 744 aircraft which became the flagship bomber of the Air Force for more than four decades, took place between 1962 and 1954.
Powerplants were the key to commercial aircraft capability range, and performance, and were incorporated from the 747-200B when the Pratt and Whitney JT9D-7Q became available. First ordered by Northwest Orient, but quickly followed by Braniff, Japan Air Lines, Singapore Airlines, and Avianca, the model, introducing lighter nacelles, offered a two- to three-percent decrease in fuel consumption. Powered by the similarly-rated General Electric CF6-50E and Rolls Royce RB.211-524D turbofans, the aircraft was able to boast a new maximum takeoff weight of 833,000 pounds.
While an increased capacity variant was considered throughout the 747 program’s earliest days, these motors paved the way for reconsideration today without the prior need.
Toward that end, studies performed in 1976 focused on a 23-foot fuselage stretch, attained by way of seven-frame forward and eight-frame aft insertions, along with a 27-foot upper deck improve, for a new combined class passenger capacity of 570, as opposed to the previous 440. Yet passenger demand throughout the late-1970s precluded the viability of airline client consensus and this project pointed to a modest stretch.
Lengthened by some 23 feet, it comprised two upward-opening doors and 18 additional windows with evacuation slides. Although it carried an 8,000-pound, or two-percent, structural weight increase, the otherwise simplified modification increased its six-abreast lodging from 32 to 69, attained by a brand new, straight, internal staircase that replaced the type’s signature spiral one.
Designated 747-300, it was provided as either a new-build version or a conversion of existing 747-200Bs, each of which factored into launching customer Swissair’s June 1980 order for four of the former and one of the latter. Powered by four 64,750 thrust-pound JT9D-7R4G2 engines, it flew two decades later, on October 5, and was kind certified annually then on March 4 at an 833,000-pound gross weight.
It introduced neither increased range nor any sort of design enhancement while the change variant offered a capacity increase.
Several factors caused reconsideration of a derivative of the 747 in the mid-1980s.
Sales, first and foremost, was declining. Seven airframes in 1979’s production rate had been reduced to a trickle of just one. Without revitalization, the program was likely to be terminated.
Currency and advancement, second, hadn’t been preserved, a strategy that had retained the 727 and 737 programs alive with advanced versions, and the later, particularly, had spawned the Next Generation 737-300, -400, and -500 series.
Competition, thirdly, although not always on an even-keel foundation, had started to emerge with step-change technology, as happened with the DC-10-30 and -40, whose succeeding MD-11 introduced quieter, more fuel efficient engines and two-person digital cockpits. Airbus itself was about to unveil its twin- and quad-engine A330 and A340 designs.
Growth had changed from the Atlantic to the Pacific, with unprecedented numbers of amounts and passengers of freight.
What was needed was a modernized version of the venerable 747 with significant range to get rid of the intermediate stops in Alaska and Hawaii, yet not sacrifice payload. The remedy was initially envisioned as a variation of the 747-300 with either Pratt and Whitney PW4000 or General Electric CF6-80C turbofans, an increased wingspan, and its resultantly greater wing integral fuel tank capacity.
Yet, most of the major, ancient 747 operators hunted far more than these simple power and dimensional increases packed in the projected 747-300A, prompting Boeing to embark upon a comprehensive reassessment project so the new version would be commensurate with late-20th century technology.
Devising, in actuality, a five-point list to create next-generation earnings, it sought to integrate state-of-the-art technology, considerably improve the passenger cabin, increase the scope by 1,000 miles, reduce fuel consumption by up to 37-percent over that of the original 747-100, and decrease operating costs by ten per cent.
Designated 747-400 and declared in May of 1985, it was a significantly improved aircraft.
Even though it retained the 231.10-foot overall length of all of the prior regular versions and featured the stretched upper deck of the -300, it introduced a considerably modified wing. Built up of the 2000 copper and 7000 zinc series of aluminum alloys developed for the 757 and 767, which formed the torsion box upper and lower skins, and incorporating graphite composites, it featured both a six-foot span increase and six-foot winglets that were outwardly canted by 29 degrees and had a 60-degree sweepback. Eliminating the need for a larger span increase, these area-rule designed devices harnessed the vortex produced by the upper and lower pressure differential remix at the tip, increasing area and lift, reducing drag, and retaining gate compatibility dimensions a greater stretch wouldn’t have achieved.
“Winglets,” according to Boeing,”are a new stabilization feature to compensate for wing and body structural changes.” They facilitated the transportation of 40 more passengers 2,500 miles further.
While the ailerons, spoilers, and dual-section, triple slotted trailing edge flaps remained the same as those integrated on previous 747 versions, an additional factor camber leading edge flap was set up, resulting in three inboard Krueger apparatus from the origin to the inboard engines, five mid-wing ones involving the powerplants, and the new total of six between the outboard one and the tip.
The construction materials increased the wing’s strength between five and 13 per cent, yet reduced aircraft weight by up to 5,500 lbs. Compared to the 195.8-foot length of the previous versions, the 747-400 had a 211.5 unfueled one or 213.0 one with full tanks, which caused a downward bend of the airfoil. Aspect ratio was 7.7 and area was 5,825 square feet.
Another improvement that is 747-400 has been its powerplant. Because engine manufacturers had made significant advancements in the design and development of advanced turbofans, particularly for long-range, widebody twins which were predicated upon enhanced reliability and thrust and decreased fuel consumption and noise, the latest 747 version was 40-percent quieter than its -300 series predecessor. As had happened with the 747-200B, it was provided with poweprlants made by all three engine manufacturers.
It consumed seven percent less fuel than the prior JT9D upon which it was established.
The 58,000 thrust-pound General Electric CF6-80C2B1F, first specified by KLM Royal Dutch Airlines, provided a four-stage low pressure compressor matched to the fan, a core airflow that increased from 276 to 340 pounds per minute, and an overall pressure ratio of 30.4 to 1 produced from the 14-stage high pressure compressor.
The Rolls Royce RB.211-524, featuring three-shaft, wide-chord blades, was offered in two versions: the 58,000 thrust-pound -524G and the 60,000 thrust-pound 524H. Cathay Pacific first ordered it.
All engines, irrespective of type, were attached to pylons that were redesigned.
While the aircraft was on the ground with a 100-degree one that is outside, it could maintain a 75-degree Fahrenheit cabin temperature.
Fuel, whose capacity varied between 53,985 and 57,285 US gallons for Pratt and Whitney and Rolls Royce engine-powered aircraft, and between 53,711 and 57,011 US gallons for General Electric powered ones, was kept in the fuselage center section and two main tanks per wing, together with reserve and port surge tanks. Although minor modifications were made to their detectors and plumbing, the 747-400’s major design feature was a 3,300-US gallon auxiliary tank in the 72-foot, 2.5-inch spanned horizontal tailplane, providing a 350 nautical mile growth. It wasn’t, however, used for in-flight center-of-gravity variation.
Greater rudder authority, amending maximum deflection from a former 25- into a current 30-degrees, eased a ten-knot ground speed reduction in which it could maintain the effectiveness.
While the 747-400 retained the same five-truck, 18-wheel configuration of the earlier versions, it replaced the former steel brakes with carbon ones, which provided a 1,800-pound weight reduction, were rated for twice the number of landings, and chilled faster, climbing aircraft turn-around times. A wheel diameter increase was required by Bigger tires . Ai digital system was introduced.
Ice and rain protection encompassed total air temperature probes; window wipers, washers, and rain repellent; window warmth; pitot-static probes on both sides; angle-of-attack detectors, again on both sides; wing anti-ice; and motor inlet cowl anti-ice.
Those on the fuselage included vacuum cleaning, oxygen, electrical, potable water, hydraulic, oil, air start, and air conditioning. Those on the wing encompassed the fuel vent, the gravity gas vent, the fuel itself, and the fuel control panel on the left wing bottom.
Significant enhancements were made to the interior.
The cockpit, first of all, was transformed from a three- to a two-person one, with the fight engineer’s functions having been incorporated in an overhead panel and these were automatically monitored.
Employing digital systems designed for the 757 and 767, it featured six eight-by-eight inch cathode ray tube (CRT) displays, consisting of the primary combat display (PFD) and the navigation display (ND) placed side-by-side facing the captain and replicated to the first officer, and two center engine indication and crew alerting system (EICAS) screens.
An extensive data base, subdivided into performance and navigation categories, replaced the performance manuals and navigation charts, and facilitated the rapid, extremely precise calculations of any desired parameter in combination with the flight management computer (FMC).
Information was enterable and retrievable by way of the control display unit keypads.
During cockpit setup, the lower of the two engine indicator and crew alerting system displays displayed the secondary engine data-that is, the N2 and N3 shaft speeds, vibration, fuel flow, and oil temperature, pressure, and quantity-while the top continuously exhibited the key engine data, such as engine pressure ratio, the N1 fan speed, and the exhaust gas temperature (EGT).
Compared to the 971 lights, gauges, and switches of the first generation 747’s analog cockpit, the present -400’s digital one featured just a third, or 365. The aircraft was certified for Category IIIB landings.
Boeing listed its fight deck avionics baseline capacities as follows.
“8 x 8 integrated displays: air data, primary flight and navigation instruments; motor, subsystems, caution and warning alerts; systems status and synoptic (heads-down observation ).
“Advanced FMC software package: push management – autothrottle/thrust limit; altitude/speed flight profile intervention through AFDS MCP; Nav radio tuning – automatic and remote; global nav data base capability; software improvements.
“Central maintenance computer system (CMCS): standardized subsystem sting with English language readout; interactive control of system LRU bite via MCDU; interfaces flight deck//avionic and related airplane systems.
“Improved dispatch reliability: redundant control of mode works for EFIS/EICAS/AFDS MCP; screen function shifting and triple EIFS/EICAS port units.
Aside from two observer seats, a windowless crew rest compartment, featuring one or two full-length bunks, reading lights, and new air vents, enabled additional pilots to attain legal rest periods on fights that could span up to 18 hours. A similar, though much larger, cabin crew rest area, installed in the formerly unutilized back roof in the last row of passenger seats to the rear pressure bulkhead and replacing the 747-300’s”Portakabin” one which had taken the place of around 20 revenue-generating passenger ones, was accessible by a locked door, three-step, and vertical ladder entryway. Incorporating ceiling light and insulation to simulate day and night cycles, it was configured with quantities of sleeper seats and bunks.
The redesigned interior, which introduced an innovative widebody look, featured recontoured ceilings and sidewalls; concealed lighting; self-supporting ceiling panels; larger overhead side and center storage compartments; outboard, seat track lockable modular galleys; modular, vacuum flushable toilets, whose waste was stored in four rear tanks; plus a digital in-flight entertainment system with seat-back monitors; and five primary deck air conditioning zones with higher ventilation.
Inter-deck access, as had been provided on the 747-300, was via a stairway.
Class division, density, ability, colour, fabric, and decoration varied according to customer specification. A 416 tri-class configuration, for instance, entailed 23 first class seats at a 61-inch pitch, 80 business class ones in a 39-inch pitch, and 313 coach class ones at a 32-inch pitch. A dual-class cabin accommodating 497 entailed 42 first class and 455 coach seats. Five hundred eleven provisioned using its own galleys and lavatories and 406 coach ones in a 32-inch pitch, with another 76 on the stretched upper deck, could be subdivided into 42 business class seats at a pitch.
Maximum main deck abreast seats in the four cabins on the other side of the nose was ten, with six on the deck with one aisle, and two aisles. Maximum, exit-limited passenger capacity was 624.
The 747-400’s lower deck hold volume of 6,035 cubic feet was subdivided into 5,190 cubic feet of unit loading device (ULD) distance and 845 of bulk or loose-load space, facilitating the loading of 16 forward and 14 aft LD-3 containers or five forward and four aft 96-by-125-inch pallets.
Range, at a cruise speed with reserves and 412 passengers, was miles.
Construction of the first 747-400, registered N401PW, began in mid-1986 in Everett, by which time Singapore, KLM, Lufthansa, Cathay Pacific, and British Airways had ordered 49 aircraft. The launch order, for ten of northwest, called for aircraft. Assembly occurred a little over a year in September, as it marked the occasion of their first 737-400 rollout and the first roll-out, on January 26, 1988, entailed a dual-ceremony, dual-location event. Another 58 aircraft, by United and Air France, had been intermittently ordered.
The expected system glitches, in addition to powerplant delivery delays and the part, postponed the PW4056-powered aircraft’s first flight from March to April 29, 1988, followed by General Electric and Rolls Royce examples in June and August. The GE airframe set a new world gross weight record, leaving the runway.
Certification, after a flight test program, was achieved on January 9, 1989. Delivered to Northwest 17 days later and entering domestic service between Phoenix and Minneapolis on February 9 for crew familiarization purposes, the first 747-400, driven by PW4056 turbofans, was put in the Pacific-spanning skies it was intended for, from New York to Tokyo, on June 1.
First deliveries comprised those to Lufthansa and KLM, on, respectively and May 23 to Cathay Pacific on June 8 with Rolls Royce powerplants, and with General Electric engines. On the August 17 delivery flight to Qantas, the kind set a world distance record from London to Sydney, covering the 9,688 miles in 20 hours, eight minutes.
By May 25, 1990, the 747-400 had attracted 279 firm orders.
As had happened with the 747 that was basic, and especially with its -200 B series, Boeing offered variations of the 747-400.
The first of these was the 747-400 Combi Featuring combinations of primary deck passenger and freight loads, the latter in two aft zones, it incorporated a 120- by 130-inch aft, port, upward-opening door, reinforced flooring, and freight loading system, easing several load combinations, such as 268 passengers and seven pallets, 290 passengers and dix pallets, or up to 13 pallets. The type was delivered to KLM.
Considered an innovative counterpart to the earlier 747SR for brief , high-density Japanese businesses, it provided a 600,000-pound maximum takeoff weight, and omitted the right-wing wing extensions and winglets, was powered by lower thrust engines, although it was certifiable up to 870,000 pounds.
The first 747-400D, which was the 844th 747 airframe of all versions, first flew in March of 1991 and has been delivered to Japan Air Lines in October. Another operator, all-Nippon Airlines, configured the aircraft for 542 economy class passengers and 27 business.
The 747-400F another version, replaced the 747-200F, whose creation was discontinued after a launch order was put by Air France for five on September 13, 1989. Devoid of facilities and passenger windows, and employing -200, the 747-100, and – SP’s upper deck, it featured a flight foldable ladder and side cargo doors, both upward-opening nose, and a crew rest area. It might carry 26 more tons of cargo 1,200 miles farther than its earlier -200F counterpart.
Volume totaled feet, such as 21,347 on the main deck, 5,600 from the deck holds, and 520 in the majority. Two pallets could be accommodated on the deck.
The first 747-400F, the 747 built, first took to the skies three months later, on May 4, and was first rolled out on February 25, 1993. The maximum gross weight of the type was 875,000 lbs. Because Air France had since canceled its order, Cargolux inaugurated the kind into service instead.
The previous version was the 747-400ER, intended, as its designation indicates, for”extended range” operations. Initially offered to Qantas as the 747-400IGW”increased gross weight,” it featured one or two 3,064-US gallon auxiliary tanks installed in the grip, increasing fuel capacity to 63,403 gallons and range to 7,500 nautical miles with one tank and 7,700 miles with 2.
Powered by PW4062 motors, the -400ER had a maximum takeoff weight a 535,000-pound zero-fuel weight, and a 652,000-pound landing weight. Design range with 416 passengers was 7,585 miles.
On September 10, 1993, the 1,000th 747, a -400 series for Singapore Airlines, was rolled out, making it the fifth Boeing type to accomplish this production milestone after the 707, 727, 737, and (originally McDonnell-Douglas) MD-80. By January 1, 2002, 41 operators had arranged 630 747-400s of all versions. Production totaled 694.
Some will argue life at sea was simpler back before regulations were established by the IMO, US Coast Guard and ABS. But was it? Most of the ships were Flags. That meant long tours of duty and no union. You’ll discover seafarers prefer American flagships, today; the cover is better, and they are unionized. “There’s far more paperwork now,” says Third Mate Mike Loesch. “Instead of doing only the noon report, you’re now doing three reports a day.”
In 1875, nine Houses of Refuge were constructed along the Florida coast; between Miami and Jacksonville; every 25 miles. The United States Life-Saving Service commissioned Every Refuge House. They had a keeper whose only job was walk the beaches, keep it provided of food and to keep the home. When they came across a shipwrecked sailor they gave him”refuge” in their house. The men got to stay for a couple weeks. Some got back on boats heading north. Over the years they’ve been controlled by the US Coast Guard and the Navy. One house remains in Martin County on Gilbert’s Bar today. In 1976 it was recorded in the National Register of Historic Places.
This year the theme for International Seafarer Day of the IMO is well-being. Since this is a huge topic I thought I’d stay the course. And, enlist the help of a few seafarers. Tour duties last anywhere from 75 days a boat. Before their faces even warm, Third Mate Mike is on the bridge for his morning watch. Captain Tod is busy getting the morning report out before breakfast. Third Mate Mike attends to maintenance or his security inspections if the mate needs it done. After lunch another third mate is relieved by him and stands watch until dinner. The conclusion of the 12-hour day and another sunset. He would be in the cargo control room monitoring the freight 25, rather than standing watch on the bridge if the ship is docked. Making rounds and assessing the lines. One thing you do not need is the boat.
Hot and cold meals are provided three times a day. Breakfast is your standard fare. Lunch and dinner offers many different meat, fish and a salad bar. You need to let the Captain know when you board the ship, like I do, if anyone has a food allergy. According to Civilian Mariner Wendy, I would starve on the navy’s ship. Their food is mostly deep-fried foods with veggies and a salad bar. Not exactly nutritious. They provide Navy and NATO ships with fuel, parts, food and sodas.
Must be inspection day today. Everyone’s stressed. Not sure why. An inspection is a fantastic thing. It has reported, then fixed, if they find something wrong on the boat. Right? Well, not necessarily true. Usually from first-hand experience years before when they crewed. Certainly not how things are done now or what you had been told to do. Regulations are changing all of the time, and everybody is expected to adapt. Resources aren’t always made available.
Woohoo! After sunsets of reds, gray and pink, land is in sight. The boat is heading into port where its crew members get to go onshore for a health break. The question – is can you walk right off the ship and be in the middle of everything or it full of security checkpoints? Some men like to get away or take a rest. Before heading out 17, Those that come in on a flagship that is Foreign generally head. Poor Wendy, that is when she gets the most busy. She arranges travel for some of her crew members which are leaving the boat for vacation. They don’t get to leave the boat until their replacement will get onboard. Captain Tod and mike do not always go ashore either. They have this philosophy work is work. I don’t always agree. It’s good to get off the boat for a change of scenery. Today, a few more crew members will join the boat. That would be an excellent help. The team is asked to do more, Exactly like in corporate. According to Mike, the difference is that the office building isn’t likely to run into something.
You will know safety is a concern that is mega if you’ve read any of my things. Crowley Maritime sets it high on their list. Every meeting begins with a cultural and security moment including behavior and wellness. They realize to be a top performing company they must support their workers work life balance and wellness. Their trainings vary depending on the ship. Its operations.
side personnel. Each petroleum ship has magnetic signs throughout the ship. “We don’t want to be responsive,” says David DeCamp, Sr Communicator, Strategist for Crowley Maritime. “We’re thinking prevention and preventing incidents as far as possible.” Remember, when you’re on the ship, it’s one hand for you and 1 hand for the ship. Keep your balance and keep safe.
The crew appears happy back riding the waves. Sunsets and many sunrises later end of tour duty is fast approaching. I begin to wonder what signs to watch for that folks are prepared to get the boat off. Oye! After all, my stints on boats are less crew and much shorter. I asked about.
“When the guys get silent,” says Mike. “If you’re standing watch together and for four hours they do not say one word when normally you’d be having a good conversation. After that you’ll see them begin fouling things up a lot. Some guys will just explode, or they’ll do something – either conscientiously or subconscientiously – where it is jeopardizing their job.”
Wendy says you’ll hear of somebody who starts giving away things. Saying goodbye to other people on the boat or just seems despondent. These are typically signs of suicide, she says. Amongst the younger team members.
Hit the gym do some kind of exercise or onboard the ship, when it comes time to destress. Talk to your peers and find some alone time. Regular contact with your family is important. Especially if you’re married. It helps ease their anxiety also. If email isn’t easily available, write those anyways, then once in port ship them out all at once. The receiver that is guaranteed will be awaiting them. “Remember it’s important to look after yourself,” says Captain Tod. “Not only mentally but physically. Sometimes you eat that pastry at 3:00 am or drink that coffee that is thick. Working long hours adds additional stress to your body both physically and emotionally.”
It’s important to enjoy your time off. Isn’t that one of the beauties of going to sea? Somebody else is doing your work on the ship for the next 75 days or however your tour of duty is. Recharge. Get ready to get back out there for those long hitches.